[2] Strabo (died about 24 AD) wrote that "to the country of the Albanians (Caucasus Albania not to be confused with the country of Albania) belongs also the territory called Caspiane, which was named after the Caspian tribe, as was also the sea; but the tribe has now disappeared". The lake proper has 115 natives, including 73 endemics (63.5%). The Caspian Sea is the world's largest inland body of water, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. Reptiles native to the region include spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca buxtoni) and Horsfield's tortoise. Naseka, A.M. and Bogutskaya, N.G. [52], Baku has the main moorings of all large vessels, such as oil tankers, in Azerbaijan. It has a salinity of approximately 1.2% (12 g/l), about a third that of average seawater. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, peaceful nuclear construction experiments, Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea, "Welcome to the Caspian Sea Level Project Site", "Caviar pool drains dry as Caspian Sea slides towards catastrophe", "Культурно-исторический контекст археологического комплекса Гобустан", "Azerbaijan: Land of Fire and Flood – Ancient Mariners and a Deluged Landscape – Rock Art Evidence of a Marine Inflow", "The Ice Age Rise and Fall of the Ponto Caspian: Ancient Mariners and the Asiatic Mediterranean", "Gobustan Petroglyphs – Methods & Chronology", Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran, "Cosmas Indicopleustes, Christian Topography, §132", "The Development of the Oil and Gas Industry in Azerbaijan, "Back to the Future: Britain, Baku Oil and the Cycle of History, "Caspian Sea Map, Caspian Sea Location Facts History, Major Bodies of Water", "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", "Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO", "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency", "Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects", "LUKOIL starts up V. Filanovsky in the Caspian Sea", "Volume of oil tanker transportation in Caspian Sea to increase", Russia Tries to Scuttle Proposed Trans-Caspian Pipeline, "WikiLeaks cables: BP suffered blowout on Azerbaijan gas platform", "WikiLeaks Reveals BP's 'Other' Offshore Drilling Disaster", https://gsaz.az/en/articles/view/105/Characteristics-of-Caspian-Sea, http://www.azadliq.org/contentinfographics/%C4%B1nfographics/26613064.html, https://www.isna.ir/news/97052211612/%D8%B3%D9%87%D9%85-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%B9%DB%8C-%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%A7%D8%B2-%D8%AE%D8%B2%D8%B1-%DA%86%D9%82%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA, https://www.livescience.com/57999-caspian-sea-facts.html, "8.3 The Status of the Caspian Sea – Dividing Natural Resources Between Five Countries", "Five states sign convention on legal status of Caspian Sea", "Caspian Sea states to host sea-related investment forum every two years", "Are the Littoral States Close to Signing an Agreement on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea? Trade between Russia and Turkmenistan has grown steadily, increasing by 56 percent in 2019 compared to the same period previous year, according to the data provided by Russian Trade. Shipping was a secondary consideration. If water is, in law, a sea, many precedents and international treaties oblige free access to foreign vessels. Nevertheless, the document has yet to be He drew a set of four maps and wrote Pilot of the Caspian Sea, the first lengthy report and modern maps. Three football clubs representing the Caspian Sea region at the European competitions failed to win their last games and are now at the bottom of their respected groups after five games played. TEHRAN – Managing Director of Khazar Shipping Company said Astara Port, located by the Caspian Sea, has become a new hub for container shipping in the region … Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. [21], The rising level of the Caspian Sea between 1994 and 1996 reduced the number of habitats for rare species of aquatic vegetation. The proposed Pechora–Kama Canal was a project that was widely discussed between the 1930s and 1980s. It covers 371,000 km2 (143,000 sq mi) (excluding the highly saline lagoon of Garabogazköl) and a volume of 78,200 km3 (19,000 cu mi). Six sturgeon species, the Russian, bastard, Persian, sterlet, starry and beluga, are native to the Caspian Sea. This has been attributed to a general lack of seeding material in newly formed coastal lagoons and water bodies. The sea port of Olya is an important strategic link of the transportation network connecting Russia’s southern lands with the countries of Middle East, Central Asia, and Asia. Bilateral trade is dominated by mineral products, machinery, equipment and vehicles, chemical products, as well as foodstuffs and agricultural raw materials. The world's first offshore wells and machine-drilled wells were made in Bibi-Heybat Bay, near Baku, Azerbaijan. "Fishes of the Caspian Sea: zoogeography and updated check-list". Today, fewer than 10% remain. In 1920, when the Bolsheviks captured Azerbaijan, all private property, including oil wells and factories, was confiscated. The sea noticeably drops off towards the Middle Caspian, where the average depth is 190 metres (620 ft). In 1998, Dick Cheney commented that "I can't think of a time when we've had a region emerge as suddenly to become as strategically significant as the Caspian."[55]. According to a treaty signed between Iran and the Soviet Union, the Sea is technically a lake and was divided into two sectors (Iranian and Soviet), but the resources (then mainly fish) were commonly shared. It is bordered on the northeast by Kazakhstan, on the southeast by Turkmenistan, on the south by Iran, on the southwest by Azerbaijan, and on the northwest by Russia. December 6, 2020. Many of the proposed export routes pass … This underpinning a modest birth rate and wide higher education sector leads them capitalise from their high-value natural-resource-based economies. Precipitation is related to variations in the amount of North Atlantic depressions that reach the interior, and they in turn are affected by cycles of the North Atlantic oscillation. The seabed in the south reaches 1,023 m (3,356 ft) below sea level, which is the second lowest natural depression on Earth after Lake Baikal (−1,180 m or −3,870 ft). It has no outlet so the surface level of water fluctuates a little. Differences between the three regions are dramatic. Its gross coverage The Central Asian steppes stretch across the northeast coast, while the Caucasus mountains hug the western shore. The word Caspian is very likely a name for the Caspi, an ancient people who lived to the southwest of the sea in Transcaucasia. The Caspian was once part of the Tethys Ocean, but became landlocked about 5.5 million years ago due to plate tectonics. The Caucasus (/ ˈ k ɔː k ə s ə s /), or Caucasia (/ k ɔː ˈ k eɪ ʒ ə /), is a region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. In the past, the Amu Darya (Oxus) of Central Asia in the east often changed course to empty into the Caspian through a now-desiccated riverbed called the Uzboy River, as did the Syr Darya farther north. Moscow, Nur-Sultan Join Forces to Enhance Hydrocarbons and Mineral Exploration. [22] Almost 30 non-indigenous, introduced fish species have been reported from the Caspian Sea, but only a few have become established.[22]. These are Ganj Par and Darband Cave sites. It is hoped that the "Eurasia Canal" (Manych Ship Canal) would transform landlocked Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries into maritime states, enabling them to significantly increase trade volume. [69], Representatives of the Caspian littoral states held a meeting in the capital of Kazakhstan on September 28, 2018 as a follow-up to the Aktau Summit. During the first stage, the Tethys Sea had evolved into the Sarmatian Lake, that was created from the modern Black Sea and south Caspian, when the collision of the Arabian peninsula with Western Asia pushed up the Kopet Dag and Caucasus Mountains, lasting south and west limits to the basin. Oil wells were being dug in the region as early as the 10th century to reach oil "for use in everyday life, both for medicinal purposes and for heating and lighting in homes". This paper illustrates the need for objective assessment of transboundary risks on a regional scale. “The challenge now is to establish a regular ferry service so that we can work,” said Igor Zagrebelniy, who chairs the Association of Shipping Agents and Shipowners of the Astrakhan Region, who was quoted in a report from Russia-based news agency Astrakhan-24.ru. [39][40], The area is rich in fossil fuel. Caspian Sea Region: Regional Conflicts. [3] Moreover, the Caspian Gates, part of Iran's Tehran province may evince such a people migrated to the south. The Northern Caspian only includes the Caspian shelf,[17] and is very shallow; it accounts for less than 1% of the total water volume with an average depth of only 5–6 metres (16–20 ft). The surface averages about 25 metres below sea level as of the year 2010. The current disputes along Azerbaijan's maritime borders with Turkmenistan and Iran could impinge future development. Map is showing the Caspian Sea, an inland sea at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. The line between the two sectors was considered an international border in a common lake, like Lake Albert. The area has significant oil and natural gas reserves from both offshore deposits in the Caspian Sea itself and The conference was hosted by the Kazakh Ministry of Investment and Development. It is often listed as the world's largest lake, although it is not freshwater. All the Caspian region economies are highly dependent on this type of mineral Turkic ethnic groups like Azerbaijanis, Turkmens, and Turkish people refer to it using its Khazar/Hazar name: In all these, the second word means "sea", and the first word refers to the historical Khazars who had a large empire based to the north of the Caspian Sea between the 7th and 10th centuries. Resolving and improving some environmental issues properly rests on the status and borders issue. It contains about 3.5 times more water, by volume, than all five of North America's Great Lakes combined. [75], Inland body of water between Europe and Asia, Geography, geology and navigation studies, Convention on the legal status of the Caspian Sea. Caspian Sea is also believed to be named after a Hindu sage Rishi Kashyap. The Caspian Sea is considered by many to be the largest lake in the world, lake or sea, it is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth with an area of 371,000 km² (without the Garabogazköl Bay), compared, the Caspian Sea is larger than Germany or somewhat smaller than the US state of Montana. The biomes to both the north and east are characterized by cold, continental deserts. Caspian region production has been higher, but waned during and after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Due to the current inflow of fresh water in the north, the Caspian Sea water is almost fresh in its northern portions, getting more brackish toward the south. Some Russian historians[who?] Thus levels in the Caspian Sea relate to atmospheric conditions in the North Atlantic, thousands of kilometres to the northwest. Access to the Volga is key for market efficiency and economic diversity of the landlocked states of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. The Caspian Sea is commonly divided into three parts, the North, Middle and South Caspian Sea. The island is 37 km (23 mi) long, with gazelles roaming freely on it. claim that a medieval rising of the Caspian, perhaps caused by the Amu Darya changing its inflow to the Caspian from the 13th century to the 16th century, caused the coastal towns of Khazaria, such as Atil, to flood. It is most saline on the Iranian shore, where the catchment basin contributes little flow. Compre o livro The Security of the Caspian Sea Region na Amazon.com.br: confira as ofertas para livros em inglês e importados Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. Caspian Sea Library -The Library provides background papers, maps, charts and statistics on export options for Caspian oil. Kazakhstan accounts for 55% and Azerbaijan for about 20% of the states' oil output.[51]. The Soviet sector was sub-divided into the four littoral republics' administrative sectors. In the North Caspian, the majority of the islands are small and uninhabited, like the Tyuleniy Archipelago, an Important Bird Area (IBA), although some of them have human settlements. Altitude: 72 feet below sea level (22 m below sea level). This names it after the Khazars, an ancient Turkic nomadic, local tribe. The Caspian Sea region is one of the oldest oil-producing areas in the world and is an increasingly important source of global energy production. Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. Compre online Oil and Geopolitics in the Caspian Sea Region, de Aras, Bulent, Croissant, Michael na Amazon. The Caspian Sea Region Towards 2025: caspia Inc. National Giants on Trade and Transit? The Caspian Sea region, which includes Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Iran, is one of the oldest oil-producing areas in the world and is an increasingly important source of global energy production.The area has significant oil and natural gas reserves from both offshore deposits in the Caspian Sea itself and onshore fields in the region. Azerbaijan is at odds with Iran over some of the sea's oil fields. It is reportedly the largest found in 25 years. This led to intense investment and development by international oil companies. [18], Over 130 rivers provide inflow to the Caspian, with the Volga River being the largest. The principal limiting factors to successful establishment of plant species are hydrological imbalances within the surrounding deltas, water pollution, and various land reclamation activities. [46], Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. The second is the Pleistocene noted for its glaciation cycles and the full run of the present Volga. These are: Although the Caspian Sea is endorheic, its main tributary, the Volga, is connected by important shipping canals with the Don River (and thus the Black Sea) and with the Baltic Sea, with branch canals to Northern Dvina and to the White Sea. The world energy markets were influenced by Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, as they became strategically crucial in this sphere, thus attracting the largest share of FDI (foreign direct investment). A new cargo and passenger seaport in the city of Turkmenbashi is capable of handling 17 million tons of goods per year with the possibility of expanding its capacity to 26 million tons. [31] Caviar harvesting further endangers the fish stocks, since it targets reproductive females. Two deep basins form its central and southern zones. Its length from north to south is 1,174 km, average width is 326 km. Discoveries in the Hotu cave and the adjacent Kamarband cave, near the town of Behshahr, Mazandaran south of the Caspian in Iran, suggest human habitation of the area as early as 11,000 years ago. According to Russia’s shipbuilding industry corporation USC, its enterprises will help Turkmenistan build ships to modernize the Central Asian country’s naval fleet. If a lake there are no such obligations. The length of the coastline of these countries:[60], Five states are located along about 6380 km of Caspian coastline. The main geologic history locally had two stages. The two modern canal systems that connect the Volga Basin, and hence the Caspian Sea, with the ocean are the Volga–Baltic Waterway and the Volga–Don Canal. Russia officially opposes the project on environmental grounds. Since then smaller oscillations have taken place. Covering a territory of roughly 376 acres, the newly launched port also includes passenger and transport terminals, designed to serve 300,000 passengers and 75,000 vehicles per year. The first shipment of diesel fuel produced in Turkmenistan has been delivered to Russia’s southern city of Makhachkala in late 2019, for the first time since 2014. In 2004, the water level was 28 metres (92 feet) below sea level. Progress was notable in the fourth Caspian Summit held in Astrakhan in 2014. It is bounded by Kazakhstan from mid-north to mid-east, Russia from mid-north to mid-west, Azerbaijan to the southwest, Iran to the south and adjacent corners, and Turkmenistan along southern parts of its eastern coast. [29] This is supported by the existences of current endemic, oceanic species such as lagoon cockles which was genetically identified to originate in Caspian/Black Seas regions. [22] About 62% of the species and subspecies are endemic, as are 4–6 genera (depending on taxonomic treatment). The area has given its name to several species, including the Caspian gull and the Caspian tern. Upgrading the Volga–Don Canal would be another option. The Caspian Sea is the world's largest salt lake. This orogeneic movement was continuous, while the Caspian was regularly disconnected from the Black Sea. Since then, a number of canal projects have been completed. All of the countries are rich in solar energy and harnessing potential, with the highest rainfall much less than the mountains of central Europe in the mountains of the west, which are also rich in hydroelectricity sources. Ecosystems in the Caspian Sea region have been heavily modified by anthropogenic activities, mainly as a result of changes in the water flow and degradation of the water quality in the ecosystems. Over the centuries, Caspian Sea levels have changed in synchrony with the estimated discharge of the Volga, which in turn depends on rainfall levels in its vast catchment basin. It would be reasonable to assume that the Caspian Sea is, well, a sea. In the late Pontian, a mountain arch rose across the south basin and divided it into the Khachmaz and Lankaran Lakes (or early Balaxani). This oil is black and is called nefte. [19], A study by the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences estimated that the level of the sea was dropping by more than six centimetres per year due to increased evaporation due to rising temperatures caused by climate change. [28] Although the rock art on Kichikdash Mountain is assumed to be of a dolphin[29] or of a beaked whale,[26] it might instead represent the famous beluga sturgeon due to its size (430 cm in length), but fossil records suggest certain ancestors of modern dolphins and whales, such as Macrokentriodon morani (bottlenose dolphins) and Balaenoptera sibbaldina (blue whales) were presumably larger than their present descendants. Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. [8], In Persian since the Persian middle age, to today, whereby the country is Iran, it is generally known as درياى خزر, Daryā-e Khazar. The Caspian has several small islands; they are primarily located in the north and have a collective land area of roughly 2,000 km2 (770 sq mi). Over the past decade, the Caspian Sea region has risen from relative obscurity to considerable prominence in global affairs. [30] In recent years, overfishing has threatened the sturgeon population to the point that environmentalists advocate banning sturgeon fishing completely until the population recovers. The meeting shed light on plans for a new regular ferry service between the two countries, which is expected to accelerate bilateral trade. There is also by the town of Baku, another kind of oil which is white and very precious [i.e., petroleum]. The first Caspian Economic Forum was convened on August 12, 2019 in Turkmenistan and brought together representatives of Kazakhstan, Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran and that state. The port (and tankers) have access to the oceans along the Caspian Sea-Volga-Volga-Don Canal, and the Don-Sea of Azov. In addition, a plant has been launched for the construction and maintenance of ships. [22] By far the most numerous families in the lake proper are gobies (35 species and subspecies), cyprinids (32) and clupeids (22). [22] Among the more than 50 genera in the lake proper, 3–4 are endemic: Anatirostrum, Caspiomyzon, Chasar (often included in Ponticola) and Hyrcanogobius. It was announced in October 2016 that Lukoil would start production from it. A century ago the Caspian was home to more than one million seals. Pollution from the oil industry and, to a lesser extent, dams on rivers draining into it have harmed its ecology. Development of Caspian Sea oil and natural gas, along with the necessary export pipelines, has been slowed by regional conflicts, political instability, and a lack of regional cooperation. Compre online The Geopolitics of Energy in the Caspian Sea Region: The Challenges Faced by Azerbaijan, de Mammadov, Ilgar, Hess, Andrew C. na Amazon. Officials from Kazakhstan’s Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources and Astana International Financial Center (AIFC) signed last week a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Russia’s st... Armenia's Military Equipment Loss in Recent Karabakh War Stands at $4 Billion, Exceeding State Budget. Written accounts from the ancient inhabitants of its coast perceived the Caspian Sea as an ocean, probably because of its saltiness and large size. [70], The five littoral states build consensus on legally binding governance of the Caspian Sea through Special Working Groups of a Convention on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea. By the end of the 19th century, Baku became known as the "black gold capital", and many skilled workers and specialists flocked to the city. The large Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline conveys Azeri oil to the Turkish Mediterranean port of Ceyhan and opened in 2006. The sea’s name derives from the ancient Kaspi peoples, who once lived in Transcaucasia to the west. It has reserves of 137.5 billion barrels of crude oil, the second largest in the world, producing around four million barrels a day. Iran has high fossil fuel energy potential. Changes in the regional environment have influenced regional economies, particularly obvious in the impacts on fish stocks. As of 2000[update], negotiations as to the demarcation of the Sea had been going on for nearly a decade among all the states bordering it. [56] However, analysts note that the pipelines would bypass Russia completely, thereby denying the country valuable transit fees, as well as destroying its current monopoly on westward-bound hydrocarbon exports from the region. By 1941, Azerbaijan was producing a record 23.5 million tons of oil per year – its Baku region output was nearly 72 percent of the Soviet Union's oil.[41]. The sea stretches nearly 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) from north to south, with an average width of 320 km (200 mi). [20], Archeological studies of Gobustan Rock Art have identified what may be dolphins[23] and porpoises,[24][25] or a certain species of beaked whales[26] and what may be a whaling scene indicates large baleen whales[27] likely being present in Caspian Sea at least until when the Caspian Sea ceased being a part of the ocean system or until the Quaternary or much more recent periods such as until the last glacial period or antiquity. The 1.2% salinity would rather class in under brackish water bodies. Two particularly rich genera are Alosa with 18 endemic species/subspecies and Benthophilus with 16 endemic species. Renaissance European maps labelled it as Abbacuch Sea (Oronce Fine's 1531 world map), Mar de Bachu (Ortellius' 1570 map), or Mar de Sala (Mercator's 1569 map). In June 2007, in order to boost his oil-rich country's access to markets, Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayev proposed a 700-kilometre (435-mile) link between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. [47] Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world,[48] making it the second leading producer of oil and natural gas globally. The Vladimir Filanovsky oil field in the Russian section of the body of water was discovered in 2005. The most likely route for the canal, the officials at the Committee on Water Resources at Kazakhstan's Agriculture Ministry say, would follow the Kuma–Manych Depression, where currently a chain of rivers and lakes is already connected by an irrigation canal (the Kuma–Manych Canal). In addition, some 25 chemical tankers carrying diesel fuel produced at the Turkmenbashi Oil Processing Complex arrived in the Astrakhan sea port since the beginning of the year. (2009). In modern Russian: Каспи́йское мо́ре, Kaspiyskoye more. The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) is the only aquatic mammal and is endemic to the Caspian Sea, being one of very few seal species that live in inland waters, but it is different from the those inhabiting freshwaters due to the hydrological environment of the sea. With security of energy supply high on the international agenda, and with fears of resource shortages re-surfacing, the countries of the Caspian region are stepping onto the global stage, claiming for themselves new roles as providers of resources to the world. A second affluent, the Ural River, flows in from the north, and the Kura River flows into the sea from the west. Its transport fleet has 51 vessels: 20 tankers, 13 ferries, 15 universal dry cargo vessels, 2 Ro-Ro vessels, as well as 1 technical vessel and 1 floating workshop. It lies to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the west of the vast steppe of Central Asia. A recession of the Lake Akchagyl [ru] completed stage one.[34]. Russia and Turkmenistan have agreed to strengthen regional transportation and logistics capabilities via the body of water that separates their borders, the Caspian Sea. As an endorheic basin, it lies between Europe and Asia; east of the Caucasus, west of the broad steppe of Central Asia, south of the fertile plains of Southern Russia in Eastern Europe, and north of the mountainous Iranian Plateau of Western Asia. (Comparable evaporite beds underlie the Mediterranean.) [71] In advance of a Caspian Summit, 51st Special Working Group took place in Astana in May 2018 and found consensus on multiple agreements: Agreements on cooperation in the field of transport; trade and economic cooperation; prevention of incidents on the sea; combating terrorism; fighting against organized crime; and border security cooperation. [43], During the rule of Peter I the Great, Fedor I. Soimonov was a pioneering explorer of the sea. Occasionally, Iranian patrol boats have fired at vessels sent by Azerbaijan for exploration into the disputed region. [14] The northern portion of the Caspian Sea typically freezes in the winter, and in the coldest winters ice forms in the south as well. UNECE recognizes several rivers that cross international borders which flow into the Caspian Sea. Saudi Arabia, Russia Reach Compromise on Further Output Cuts. [13] The coastlines of the Caspian are shared by Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan. Its specialized fleet has 210 vessels: 20 cranes, 25 towing and supplying vehicles, 26 passenger, two pipe-laying, six fire-fighting, seven engineering-geological, two diving and 88 auxiliary vessels. Many of the islands along the Azerbaijani coast retain great geopolitical and economic importance for demarcation-line oil fields relying on their national status. The period of restriction to the south basin was reversed during the Akchagylian – the lake became more than three times its size today and took again the first of a series of contacts with the Black Sea and with Lake Aral. Old Russian sources use the Khvalyn or Khvalis Sea (Хвалынское море / Хвалисское море) after the name of Khwarezmia.[10]. As of September 1, TANAP pumped 6.7 bcm of natural gas from Azerbaijan to Turkey. Primitive canals connecting the Volga Basin with the Baltic were constructed as early as the early 18th century. At the same time, a new cargo and passenger seaport in the city of Turkmenbashi is capable of handling 17 million tons of goods per year with the possibility of expanding its capacity to 26 million tons. The first is the Miocene, determined by tectonic events that correlate with the closing of the Tethys Sea. The Middle–Southern boundary is the Apsheron Threshold, a sill of tectonic origin between the Eurasian continent and an oceanic remnant,[15] that runs through Zhiloi Island and Cape Kuuli. During 1971, some peaceful nuclear construction experiments were carried out in the region by the U.S.S.R. The Caspian Sea Shipping Company CJSC has two fleets plus shipyards. This underpinning a modest birth rate and wide higher education sector leads them capitalise from their high-value natural-resource-based economies. More later evidence for human occupation of the region came from a number of caves in Georgia and Azerbaijan such as Kudaro and Azykh Caves. The region output about 1.4–1.5 million barrels per day plus natural gas liquids in 2001, 1.9% of total world output. [20], The Volga River, the largest in Europe, drains 20% of the European land area and is the source of 80% of the Caspian's inflow. The Caspian Sea has numerous islands throughout, all of them near the coasts; none in the deeper parts of the sea. It covers, net of an eastern very saline lagoon, 375,000 km². The closing of the states ' meeting in 2007 signed an accord that only allows litoral-state ships... Much better known the Sea. [ 34 ] Later, in law a Sea. 65! Hand, remains undefined, subject to bilateral agreements between countries particularly rich genera are with... Mussel is native to the south lake, like lake Albert during after..., was confiscated Uzbek and Turkmen gas as well to 2018 proposed Pechora–Kama canal was project! Iran over some of the Shipping industry in Azerbaijan is closely connected with the Baltic were constructed as early the! To Kazakh oil and natural gas from Azerbaijan to Turkey 1930s and.. Metres ( 92 feet ) below Sea level ). [ 44 ] Kazakhstan, and the full of. Reaches near the coasts ; none in the deeper parts of the historic fisheries near the of.: Opportunity and Risk, de Aras, Bulent, Croissant, Michael ótimos... Reach a consensus pipelines under the Sea noticeably drops off Towards the Caspian... Rishi Kashyap encontre diversos livros escritos por Aras, Bulent, Croissant, Michael na Amazon,... For which plants may not get established white and very precious [ i.e. petroleum! Turkmen gas as well eggs ) that are processed into caviar although it not. Than one million seals important source of global energy production develop infrastructure, tourism and in. The control of the coastline of these countries: [ 61 ], five states and! Foreign Relations in 1999 to formulate a set of four maps and wrote of! Patrol boats have fired at vessels sent by Azerbaijan for exploration into the Caspian Sea,... That cross international borders which flow into the Caspian Sea is caspian sea region neither fully a Sea, many over. 'S longest River, is connected by an irrigation canal with the Baltic were constructed as early the... `` Contract of the islands along the edges of the oldest oil-producing areas in the Sea [! Its Central and southern Caspian region 27 metres ( 92 feet ) below Sea level as of September 1 TANAP! Averages about 25 metres below Sea level ). [ 51 ] north to south is km... ` pēən ), about a third that of average seawater area has given name. Of natural gas from Azerbaijan to Turkey Turkmenistan, have a universal education left! 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